- The Humble Man is Promoted
- The message of the Decree of Life was conceived on Sivan 23
- The Yehudim destroyed those who sought to destroy them
- More specifics on what happened on Adar 13-15
- The Feast of Purim instituted
- The Greatness of the Humble Man
- The failed exit strategy of the Proud Man
- The failing Administration of the Adversary
- What the titles and names mean
- Mordecai ben Benyamin and Paul-Shaul ben Benyamin
- The times of the Gentiles
- Likely meanings of other names in the prophetic narrative
The Humble Man is Promoted:
בַּיֹּום הַהוּא נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹושׁ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה אֶת־בֵּית הָמָן צֹרֵר היהודיים וּמָרְדֳּכַי בָּא לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּֽי־הִגִּידָה אֶסְתֵּר מַה הוּא־לָֽהּ׃ וַיָּסַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־טַבַּעְתֹּו אֲשֶׁר הֶֽעֱבִיר מֵֽהָמָן וַֽיִּתְּנָהּ לְמָרְדֳּכָי וַתָּשֶׂם אֶסְתֵּר אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכַי עַל־בֵּית הָמָֽן׃
On that day King Ahasuerus gave the house of Haman (whose name literally means “Magnificent;” i.e. *”Pride”), the enemy of the Yehudim, to Queen Esther; and Mordecai (whose name means literally, “Little Man,” i.e. the “Humble Man”) came before the king, for Esther had disclosed what he was to her. The king took off his signet ring which he had taken away from Haman, and gave it to Mordecai. And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman.
*Please note in the Hebrew meta narrative that Pride is the “enemy of the Yehudim!”
וַתֹּוסֶף אֶסְתֵּר וַתְּדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתִּפֹּל לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו וַתֵּבְךְּ וַתִּתְחַנֶּן־לֹו לְהַֽעֲבִיר אֶת־רָעַת הָמָן הָֽאֲגָגִי וְאֵת מַֽחֲשַׁבְתֹּו אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִֽים׃ וַיֹּושֶׁט הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר אֵת שַׁרְבִט הַזָּהָב וַתָּקָם אֶסְתֵּר וַֽתַּעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ וַתֹּאמֶר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טֹוב וְאִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן לְפָנָיו וְכָשֵׁר הַדָּבָר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְטֹובָה אֲנִי בְּעֵינָיו יִכָּתֵב לְהָשִׁיב אֶת־הַסְּפָרִים מַחֲשֶׁבֶת הָמָן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לְאַבֵּד אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מְדִינֹות הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ כִּי אֵיכָכָה אוּכַל וְֽרָאִיתִי בָּרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־יִמְצָא אֶת־עַמִּי וְאֵֽיכָכָה אוּכַל וְֽרָאִיתִי בְּאָבְדַן מֹולַדְתִּֽי׃ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וּֽלְמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי הִנֵּה בֵית־הָמָן נָתַתִּי לְאֶסְתֵּר וְאֹתֹו תָּלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ עַל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח יָדֹו ביהודיים
Then Esther spoke again to the king, fell at his feet, wept and implored him to avert the evil scheme of Haman the Agagite and his plot which he had devised against the Yehudim. The king extended the golden scepter to Esther. So Esther arose and stood before the king. Then she said, “If it pleases the king and if I have found favor before him and the matter seems proper to the king and I am pleasing in his sight, let it be written to revoke the letters devised by Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote to destroy the Yehudim who are in all the king’s provinces. For how can I endure to see the calamity which will befall my people, and how can I endure to see the destruction of my kindred?” So King Ahasuerus said to Queen Esther and to Mordecai the Yehudi, “Behold, I have given the house of Haman to Esther, and him they have hanged (literally impaled) on the gallows because he had stretched out his hands against the Yehudim.”
וְאַתֶּם כִּתְבוּ עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים כַּטֹּוב בְּעֵֽינֵיכֶם בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ וְחִתְמוּ בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּֽי־כְתָב אֲשֶׁר־נִכְתָּב בְּשֵׁם־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְנַחְתֹּום בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין לְהָשִֽׁיב׃
“Now you write to the Yehudim as you see fit, in the king’s name, and seal it with the king’s signet ring; for a decree which is written in the name of the king and sealed with the king’s signet ring may not be revoked.”
The message of the Decree of Life was conceived on Sivan 23:
וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵֽי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּֽעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלֹושָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בֹּו וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּֽכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִֽים־וְהַפַּחֹות וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינֹות אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנֹו וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשֹׁונָֽם׃ וַיִּכְתֹּב בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ וַיַּחְתֹּם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים בְּיַד הָרָצִים בַּסּוּסִים רֹכְבֵי הָרֶכֶשׁ הָֽאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִים בְּנֵי הָֽרַמָּכִֽים׃ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־עִיר־וָעִיר לְהִקָּהֵל וְלַעֲמֹד עַל־נַפְשָׁם לְהַשְׁמִיד וְלַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־חֵיל עַם וּמְדִינָה הַצָּרִים אֹתָם טַף וְנָשִׁים וּשְׁלָלָם לָבֹֽוז׃ בְּיֹום אֶחָד בְּכָל־מְדִינֹות הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹושׁ בִּשְׁלֹושָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָֽר׃ פַּתְשֶׁגֶן הַכְּתָב לְהִנָּתֵֽן דָּת בְּכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה גָּלוּי לְכָל־הָעַמִּים וְלִהְיֹות היהודיים עתודים לַיֹּום הַזֶּה לְהִנָּקֵם מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶֽם׃ הָרָצִים רֹכְבֵי הָרֶכֶשׁ הָֽאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִים יָֽצְאוּ מְבֹהָלִים וּדְחוּפִים בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָֽה׃
So the king’s scribes were called at that time in the third month (that is, the month Sivan), on the twenty-third day; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded to the Yehudim, the satraps, the governors and the princes of the provinces which extended from India to Ethiopia, 127 provinces, to every province according to its script, and to every people according to their language as well as to the Yehudim according to their script and their language. He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horses, riding on steeds sired by the royal stud. In them the king granted the Yehudim who were in each and every city the right to assemble and to defend their lives, to destroy, to kill and to annihilate the entire army of any people or province which might attack them, including children and women, and to plunder their spoil, on one day in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month (that is, the month Adar). A copy of the edict to be issued as law in each and every province was published to all the peoples, so that the Yehudim would be ready for this day to avenge themselves on their enemies. The couriers, hastened and impelled by the king’s command, went out, riding on the royal steeds; and the decree was given out at the citadel in Shushan.
וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָצָא מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּלְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת תְּכֵלֶת וָחוּר וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב גְּדֹולָה וְתַכְרִיךְ בּוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן צָהֲלָה וְשָׂמֵֽחָה׃ לַיְּהוּדִים הָֽיְתָה אֹורָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂן וִיקָֽר׃ וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וּבְכָל־עִיר וָעִיר מְקֹום אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתֹו מַגִּיעַ שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂון לַיְּהוּדִים מִשְׁתֶּה וְיֹום טֹוב וְרַבִּים מֵֽעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ מִֽתְיַהֲדִים כִּֽי־נָפַל פַּֽחַד־הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃
Then Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal robes of blue and white, with a large crown of gold and a garment of fine linen and purple; and the city of Susa shouted (צָהַל) and rejoiced (שָׂמַח). For the Yehudim there was light (אוֹרָה) and gladness (שִׂמְחָה) and joy (שָׂשׂוֹן) and honor (יְקָר). In each and every province and in each and every city, wherever the king’s commandment and his decree arrived, there was gladness (שִׂמְחָה) and joy (שָׂשׂוֹן) for the Yehudim, a feast (מִשְׁתֶּה) and a holiday (יֹום טֹוב). And many among the peoples of the land became Yehudim, for the dread of the Yehudim had fallen on them.
The Yehudim destroyed those who sought to destroy them:
וּבִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר בִּשְׁלֹושָׁה עָשָׂר יֹום בֹּו אֲשֶׁר הִגִּיעַ דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתֹו לְהֵעָשֹׂות בַּיֹּום אֲשֶׁר שִׂבְּרוּ אֹיְבֵי הַיְּהוּדִים לִשְׁלֹוט בָּהֶם וְנַהֲפֹוךְ הוּא אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁלְטוּ הַיְּהוּדִים הֵמָּה בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶֽם׃ נִקְהֲלוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּעָרֵיהֶם בְּכָל־מְדִינֹות הַמֶּלֶךְ אֳחַשְׁוֵרֹושׁ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בִּמְבַקְשֵׁי רָֽעָתָם וְאִישׁ לֹא־עָמַד לִפְנֵיהֶם כִּֽי־נָפַל פַּחְדָּם עַל־כָּל־הָעַמִּֽים׃ וְכָל־שָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינֹות וְהָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים וְהַפַּחֹות וְעֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר לַמֶּלֶךְ מְנַשְּׂאִים אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּֽי־נָפַל פַּֽחַד־מָרְדֳּכַי עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ כִּֽי־גָדֹול מָרְדֳּכַי בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁמְעֹו הֹולֵךְ בְּכָל־הַמְּדִינֹות כִּֽי־הָאִישׁ מָרְדֳּכַי הֹולֵךְ וְגָדֹֽול׃ וַיַּכּוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּכָל־אֹיְבֵיהֶם מַכַּת־חֶרֶב וְהֶרֶג וְאַבְדָן וַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ בְשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם כִּרְצֹונָֽם׃ וּבְשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹות אִֽישׁ׃ וְאֵת פַּרְשַׁנְדָּתָא וְאֵת דַּֽלְפֹון וְאֵת אַסְפָּֽתָא׃ וְאֵת פֹּורָתָא וְאֵת אֲדַלְיָא וְאֵת אֲרִידָֽתָא׃ וְאֵת פַּרְמַשְׁתָּא וְאֵת אֲרִיסַי וְאֵת אֲרִדַי וְאֵת וַיְזָֽתָא׃ עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי הָמָן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָתָא צֹרֵר הַיְּהוּדִים הָרָגוּ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָֽם׃
Now in the twelfth month, on the thirteenth day [Adar 13] when the king’s command and edict were about to be executed, on the day when the enemies of the Yehudim hoped to gain the mastery over them, it was turned to the contrary so that the Yehudim themselves gained the mastery over those who hated them. The Yehudim assembled in their cities throughout all the provinces of King Ahasuerus to lay hands on those who sought their harm; and no one could stand before them, for the dread of them had fallen on all the peoples. Even all the princes of the provinces, the satraps, the governors and those who were doing the king’s business assisted the Yehudim, because the dread of Mordecai had fallen on them. Indeed, Mordecai (the Humble Man) was great in the king’s house, and his fame spread throughout all the provinces; for the man Mordecai became greater and greater. Thus the Yehudim struck all their enemies with the sword, killing and destroying; and they did what they pleased to those who hated them. At the citadel in Susa the Yehudim killed and destroyed five hundred men, and Parshandatha, Dalfon, Aspatha, Poratha, Adalya, Aridatha, Parmashta, Arisay, Ariday and Vayzatha, the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Yehudim; but they did not lay their hands on the plunder.
More specifics on what happened on Adar 13-15:
בַּיֹּום הַהוּא בָּא מִסְפַּר הַֽהֲרוּגִים בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹות אִישׁ וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָן בִּשְׁאָר מְדִינֹות הַמֶּלֶךְ מֶה עָשׂוּ וּמַה־שְּׁאֵֽלָתֵךְ וְיִנָּתֵֽן לָךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עֹוד וְתֵעָֽשׂ׃
On that day the number of those who were killed at the citadel in Shushan was reported to the king. The king said to Queen Esther, “The Yehudim have killed and destroyed five hundred men and the ten sons of Haman (the Proud One) at the citadel in Shushan. What then have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces! Now what is your petition? It shall even be granted you. And what is your further request? It shall also be done.”
וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טֹוב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשֹׂות כְּדָת הַיֹּום וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵֽץ׃ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵֽעָשֹׂות כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָן תָּלֽוּ׃ וַיִּֽקָּהֲלוּ היהודיים אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיֹום אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּֽהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאֹות אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָֽם׃
Then said Esther, “If it pleases the king, let tomorrow also be granted to the Yehudim who are in Shushan to do according to the edict of today; and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged (impaled) on the gallows.” So the king commanded that it should be done so; and an edict was issued in Shushan, and Haman’s ten sons were hanged (impaled on a wooden post). The Yehudim who were in Shushan assembled also on the fourteenth day of the month Adar and killed three hundred men in Shushan, but they did not lay their hands on the plunder.
וּשְׁאָר הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בִּמְדִינֹות הַמֶּלֶךְ נִקְהֲלוּ וְעָמֹד עַל־נַפְשָׁם וְנֹוחַ מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהָרֹג בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁבְעִים אָלֶף וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָֽׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָֽם׃ בְּיֹום־שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְנֹוחַ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בֹּו וְעָשֹׂה אֹתֹו יֹום מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָֽה׃
Now the rest of the Yehudim who were in the king’s provinces assembled, to defend their lives and rid themselves of their enemies, and kill 75,000 of those who hated them; but they did not lay their hands on the plunder. This was done on the thirteenth day of the month Adar, and on the fourteenth day they rested and made it a day of feasting (מִשְׁתֶּה) and rejoicing (שִׂמְחָה).
והיהודיים אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן נִקְהֲלוּ בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר בֹּו וּבְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בֹּו וְנֹוחַ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בֹּו וְעָשֹׂה אֹתֹו יֹום מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָֽה׃ עַל־כֵּן הַיְּהוּדִים הפרוזים הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי הַפְּרָזֹות עֹשִׂים אֵת יֹום אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר שִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁתֶּה וְיֹום טֹוב וּמִשְׁלֹוחַ מָנֹות אִישׁ לְרֵעֵֽהוּ׃
But the Yehudim who were in Shusan assembled on the thirteenth and the fourteenth of the same month, and they rested on the fifteenth day (Adar 15) and made it a day of feasting and rejoicing (יֹום מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָֽה). Therefore the Yehudim of the rural areas, who live in the rural towns, make the fourteenth day of the month Adar a holiday (יֹום טֹוב) for rejoicing (שִׂמְחָה) and feasting (מִשְׁתֶּה) and sending portions of food to one another (מִשְׁלֹוחַ מָנֹות אִישׁ לְרֵעֵֽהוּ).
The Feast of Purim instituted:
וַיִּכְתֹּב מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מְדִינֹות הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹושׁ הַקְּרֹובִים וְהָרְחֹוקִֽים׃ לְקַיֵּם עֲלֵיהֶם לִהְיֹות עֹשִׂים אֵת יֹום אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְאֵת יֹום־חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בֹּו בְּכָל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָֽה׃ כַּיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־נָחוּ בָהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים מֵאֹויְבֵיהֶם וְהַחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר נֶהְפַּךְ לָהֶם מִיָּגֹון לְשִׂמְחָה וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיֹום טֹוב לַעֲשֹׂות אֹותָם יְמֵי מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁלֹוחַ מָנֹות אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וּמַתָּנֹות לָֽאֶבְיֹונִֽים׃
Then Mordecai (the Humble Man) recorded these events, and he sent letters to all the Yehudim who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, both near and far, obliging them to celebrate the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same month, annually, because on those days the Yehudim rid themselves of their enemies, and it was a month which was turned for them from sorrow into gladness (שִׂמְחָה) and from mourning into a holiday; that they should make them days of feasting (מִשְׁתֶּה) and rejoicing (שִׂמְחָה) and sending portions of food to one another and gifts to the poor (מַתָּנֹות לָֽאֶבְיֹונִֽים).
וְקִבֵּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הֵחֵלּוּ לַעֲשֹׂות וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־כָּתַב מָרְדֳּכַי אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ כִּי הָמָן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָתָא הָֽאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים חָשַׁב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים לְאַבְּדָם וְהִפִּיל פּוּר הוּא הַגֹּורָל לְהֻמָּם וּֽלְאַבְּדָֽם׃ וּבְבֹאָהּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אָמַר עִם־הַסֵּפֶר יָשׁוּב מַחֲשַׁבְתֹּו הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־חָשַׁב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים עַל־רֹאשֹׁו וְתָלוּ אֹתֹו וְאֶת־בָּנָיו עַל־הָעֵֽץ׃ עַל־כֵּן קָֽרְאוּ לַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה פוּרִים עַל־שֵׁם הַפּוּר עַל־כֵּן עַל־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הָאִגֶּרֶת הַזֹּאת וּמָֽה־רָאוּ עַל־כָּכָה וּמָה הִגִּיעַ אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ קִיְּמוּ וקבל הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְעַל־זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל־הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבֹור לִהְיֹות עֹשִׂים אֵת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָֽה׃ וְהַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה נִזְכָּרִים וְנַעֲשִׂים בְּכָל־דֹּור וָדֹור מִשְׁפָּחָה וּמִשְׁפָּחָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְעִיר וָעִיר וִימֵי הַפּוּרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֹא יַֽעַבְרוּ מִתֹּוךְ הַיְּהוּדִים וְזִכְרָם לֹא־יָסוּף מִזַּרְעָֽם׃
Thus the Yehudim undertook what they had started to do, and what Mordecai (the Humble Man) had written to them. For Haman (the Proud One) the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the adversary of all the Yehudim, had schemed against the Yehudim to destroy them and had cast Pur, that is the lot, to disturb them and destroy them. But when it came to the king’s attention, he commanded by letter that his wicked scheme which he had devised against the Yehudim, should return on his own head and that he and his sons should be hanged (impaled) on the gallows (on wooden poles). Therefore they called these days Purim after the name of Pur. And because of the instructions in this letter, both what they had seen in this regard and what had happened to them, the Yehudim established and made a custom for themselves and for their descendants and for *all those who allied themselves with them, so that they would not fail to celebrate these two days according to their regulation and according to their appointed time annually. So these days were to be remembered and celebrated throughout every generation, every family, every province and every city; and these days of Purim were not to fail from among the Yehudim, or their memory fade from their descendants.
*Note: There are always God fearing Gentiles who ally themselves with us (Israel); as is the case here in the time of Mordecai and Esther.
וַתִּכְתֹּב אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בַת־אֲבִיחַיִל וּמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי אֶת־כָּל־תֹּקֶף לְקַיֵּם אֵת אִגֶּרֶת הַפּוּרִים הַזֹּאת הַשֵּׁנִֽית׃ וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים אֶל־שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מַלְכוּת אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹושׁ דִּבְרֵי שָׁלֹום וֶאֱמֶֽת׃ וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים אֶל־שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מַלְכוּת אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹושׁ דִּבְרֵי שָׁלֹום וֶאֱמֶֽת׃ וּמַאֲמַר אֶסְתֵּר קִיַּם דִּבְרֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְתָּב בַּסֵּֽפֶר׃
Then Queen Esther, daughter of Abihail (אֲבִיהַיִל- “My Father is [My Chayil -חַיִל] Strength, Army, and Wealth”), with Mordecai the Yehudi, wrote with full authority to confirm this second letter about Purim. He sent letters to all the Yehudim, to the 127 provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, namely, words of shalom and truth, to establish these days of Purim at their appointed times, just as Mordecai (the Humble Man) the Yehudi and Queen Esther had established for them, and just as they had established for themselves and for their descendants with instructions for their times of fasting and their lamentations. The command of Esther established these customs for Purim, and it was written in the book.
The Greatness of the Humble Man:
וַיָּשֶׂם הַמֶּלֶךְ אחשֶׂרשֶׂ מַס עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְאִיֵּי הַיָּֽם׃ וְכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה תָקְפֹּו וּגְבוּרָתֹו וּפָרָשַׁת גְּדֻלַּת מָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר גִּדְּלֹו הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲלֹוא־הֵם כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לְמַלְכֵי מָדַי וּפָרָֽס׃ כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי מִשְׁנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹושׁ וְגָדֹול לַיְּהוּדִים וְרָצוּי לְרֹב אֶחָיו דֹּרֵשׁ טֹוב לְעַמֹּו וְדֹבֵר שָׁלֹום לְכָל־זַרְעֹֽו׃
Now King Ahasuerus laid a tribute on the land and on the coast-lands of the sea. And all the accomplishments of his authority and strength, and the full account of the greatness of Mordecai to which the king advanced him, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia? For Mordecai (the Humble Man) the Yehudi was second only to King Ahasuerus, and great among the Yehudim and in favor with his many kinsmen, one who sought the good of his people and one who spoke for the welfare of his whole nation.
The failed exit strategy of the Proud Man:
Haman is the Proud Man. His name means “Magnificent” or “Illustrious.” Haman is the opposite of Mordecai. Mordecai is the Humble Man (literally “Little Man”). Haman was promoted by king Ahasuerus over all the princes. (Ahasuerus is a type of the sovereignty or providence of Adonai (the LORD) or put another way, His active and permissive will.) This ascendancy of Haman occurred after the hanging of the two chamberlains, Bigtan and Teresh. The two chamberlains had plotted to kill the king. However, it was Mordecai (the Humble Man) that made certain that the plot was revealed to the king, not Haman (the Proud Man), before the assault could be carried out. Tradition says that Haman (Pride) “stole the glory” that rightfully belonged to Mordecai (Humility). Mordecai (the Humble Man) was the savior-revealer of the plot. Mordecai (Humility) was the true protector of the Sovereignty of the Lion-King. This “theft” of the glory of Mordecai (the Administration of the Humble Man; of the Spirit of the Holy One) temporarily made Haman (the Proud Man; the Administration of the evil one) second in command over the entire Persian Empire.
The failing Administration of the Adversary:
Haman is a type of the evil administration of Satan, our Adversary. Haman was the son of Hammedata (which means twin or double) an Agagite from the lineage of King Agag, king of Amalek, whom Adonai told King Saul (a Benjamite) to annihilate (1 Samuel 15:1-3; Exodus 17:8). Haman’s wicked administration includes the operation of man’s sinful flesh; the sinful self- life that rules in the place of the Holy One in the hearts of men, brilliantly depicted in the “names” of Haman’s ten sons.
What the titles and names mean:
In the Scroll of the Message of Adonai’s Compassion (Megillah of Esther-Haddasah) every name and place name means something. The Spirit of the Holy One is a literary genius (beyond our understanding) and everything in His Holy Scriptures is filled with infinite meaning. So much so that none but the Messiah is actually able to plumb the depths of all of the eternal wisdom and immeasurable beauty that is stored up in God’s Word.
- Queen: A title which implies immortality. Without a queen, when the king dies, his kingdom dies and his dynasty ends; as well, she is the source of fellowship and communion for the king.
- Vashti: Means beautiful woman. The Queen of Ahasuerus who refused to leave her own banquet and obey Ahasuerus’ command to come into his presence at his Shushan feast is a type of regal pride.
The proposal to banish Vashti from the kingdom was made by Memucan. Memucan means “Dignified” (one who exercises “self-control”). He was one of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom.
- Mehuman: Means faithful. One of the seven chamberlains who served in the presence of Ahasuerus.
- Bizzeta: Means booty. One of the seven chamberlains who served in the presence of Ahasuerus.
- Harvona: Means donkey-driver. One of the seven chamberlains who served in the presence of Ahasuerus. He proposed the demise of Haman.
- Bigta: Means in the wine press. One of the seven chamberlains who served in the presence of Ahasuerus.
- Avagta: Means Elohim-given or given by fortune. One of the seven chamberlains who served in the presence of Ahasuerus.
- Zetar: Means star or very great. One of the seven chamberlains who served in the presence of Ahasuerus.
- Karkas: Means eagle, illustrious or severe or spoiling of the war. One of the seven chamberlains who served In the presence of Ahasuerus.
- Karshena: Means illustrious. One of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom.
- Shetar: Means a star. One of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom.
- Admata: Means a testimony to them. One of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom.
- Tarshish: Means yellow jasper and breaking as the subjection of one’s enemies. One of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom.
- Meres: Means lofty. One of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom.
- Marsena: Means worthy. One of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom.
- Memucan: Means dignified. One of the seven princes of Persia and Media who saw the king’s face and who sat first in the kingdom. He proposed the banishment of Queen Vashti.
- Hege: Means eunuch and venerable. Ahasuerus’ chamberlain, the keeper of the women.
- Sha’ashgaz: Means servant of the beautiful. The king’s chamberlain, keeper of the concubines in the “second house.”
Mordecai ben Benyamin and Paul-Shaul ben Benyamin:
As stated numerous times before, Mordecai in Persian means “Little Man.” Mordecai is the son of Yair (Ja’ir), the son of Shimi, the son of Qish (Kish), a Benjamite. Mordecai is of the royal lineage of King Saul. He is a relative of the Shaliach (Sent One) Rabbi Paul. Our Righteous Father exiled Mordecai’s ancestors from Jerusalem during the administration of the gentile king of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, who destroyed the sacred temple of Solomon and took Jeconiah king of Judah captive.
In reading the Tanakh please note the contrast between King Saul’s prideful acts of disobedience and his greater descendant Mordecai’s humble acts of obedience. The same contrast could be made between the first Adam and the Last Adam, HaAdam Ha-acharon (the Messiah). There is a correlation (contrast King Saul and Mordecai) to what the first Adam was told to do and did not (disobedience) and what (Mordecai) the last Adam, the Messiah Yeshua did (obedience). The First Adam (ben Ha-elohim) brought death into the world through his disobedience. The Last Adam (ben Ha-Elohim) brought eternal life to all who believe in Him through His acts of obedience.
The times of the Gentiles:
וְנָפְלוּ לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְהָגְלוּ אֶל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וְהָיְתָה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם מִרְמָס לַגּוֹיִם עַד אֲשֶׁר־יִמְלְאוּ עִתּוֹת הַגּוֹיִם׃
“They [My People the Yehudim] will fall by the sword and be exiled to all of the nations. Yerushalayim will be a treading place for the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.”
The sins of the kings of Israel and Judah (cf. 1& 2 Kings; and 1 & 2 Chronicles) ushered in the “times of the Gentiles” (beginning in 606 BCE). The times of the Gentiles is the time of Gentile rule over Israel and this rule continues to this day. For although Israel has been reborn as a nation most of the land it was assigned by Adonai (our Father and our God) remains “occupied” by and under the control of other nations and peoples (whom the Holy One did not give the land to). This exile and the times of the Gentiles first occurred because the people of Israel had repeatedly failed to observe Adonai’s seven year Sabbaths (for a period of seventy Sabbaths or 490 years). Mordecai is the cousin of Hadassah (Humility is the cousin of Compassion). The rabbis say he was a linguist (parallel to the Holy Spirit; able to speak all manner of languages) and a member of the ruling Sanhedrin. Overall, Mordecai is a type of the Administration of the Holy Spirit. Another irony that is worth mentioning and there are many in the Scroll of Esther-Hadassah (the Star of Compassion), is the parallelism between King Saul and Mordecai and Rabbi Saul and his new assigned name, Paulus (Paul in Latin):
The Little Royal Tribe Point #1. The lineage of the leaders of the tribe of Benjamin changed from a prideful king Saul to a humble, obedient Mordecai; who is believed to be a descendant of King David’s closest friend Jonathan (the son of King Saul).
The Little Royal Tribe Point #2. Similarly, Rabbi Paul, like his ancestor King Saul, began the rule of his life as a man full of “pride.” Due to his pride, Paul referred to himself as formerly being “chief among sinners.”
The Little Royal Tribe Point #3. Like King Saul (who persecuted David), Rabbi Shaul was originally a persecutor of the One who was anointed by Adonai to be the King of Israel.
The Little Royal Tribe Point #4. Rabbi Shaul persecuted David’s Greater Son (direct descendant), the Messiah, by persecuting the Salvation of Adonai’s (Yeshua’s) followers.
The Little Royal Tribe Point #5. After his conversion, however, Saul became a humble man and he too acted as an obedient and loyal servant, like his famous relatives Jonathon, Mordecai and Esther.
The Little Royal Tribe Point #6. Like Mordecai Paul was a Benjamite (meaning Son of My Right Hand). We believe Mordecai and Paul are both descendants of Jonathan (cf. next chapter, “Messiah in Purim,” Chapter 25).
The Little Royal Tribe Point #7. Jonathan loved David “more than his own soul.” The House of David’s descendants (the Mashiach) and the House of Jonathan’s descendants (the Shaliach Paul) are permanently united in a special covenant of binding friendship forever (cf. 1 Samuel 20:15; 18:1-4; 20:15-17).
The Little Royal Tribe Point #8. Like Mordecai, Paul ministered to an international body of Gentiles; as well as Yehudim (Jews).
The Little Royal Tribe Point #9. Furthermore, when the glorified Messiah Yeshua changed Rabbi Shaul’s name to Paul He gave him a name like Mordecai’s.
The Little Royal Tribe Point #10. Mordecai’s name in Persian literally means “Little Man” and the new name given to Paul by the Messiah also literally means “Little.” The two names are symbolic of the “Humble Man” and of “Humility.”
Likely meanings of other names in the prophetic narrative:
- Hatakh: Means gift or truthfully. He was the king’s chamberlain whom Ahasuerus had appointed to attend Esther. He was the messenger between Esther and Mordecai.
- Zeresh: Means gold or star of adoration. She was the wife of Haman. According to the Targum, she was the daughter of Tatnai (means “gift”), who was one of the governors of Ahasuerus beyond the river.
- Bigtan: Means in their wine press. One of Ahasuerus’ two chamberlain who kept the door and who plotted to lay hands on the king because of the banishment of Vashti (“pride”) and the advancement of Esther (“humility” and “submission”).
The Targums (the ancient Aramaic translations of the Tenakh) say that they intended to destroy Ahasuerus by poison [This is how the evil one brought misery upon us. For He poisoned the fruit of the knowledge of Good with his invention—-the knowledge of evil.] The plot to kill Ahaserous by getting him to ingest poison was uncovered and prevented from succeeding by Mordecai and relayed via Esther to Ahasuerus who had the two chamberlains hanged (impaled) on a tree.
- Teresh: Means severe, or austere, or strictness. One of Ahasuerus’ two chamberlains who kept the door and who plotted to lay hands on the king because of the banishment of Vashti (pride) and the advancement of Esther (humility and submission).
- Parshandatha: Means of noble birth or given by prayer and as a type of the flesh: the Religious self. The first born son of Haman.
- Dalfon: Means dripping, as with tears or strenuous and as a type of the flesh: Self-pity. A son of Haman.
- Aspatha: Means the enticed gathered or given by the horse and as a type of the flesh: Self-sufficient. The third son of Haman.
- Poratha: Means fruitfulness or frustration or ornament and as a type of the flesh: Self- indulgent. One of the ten sons of Haman.
- Adalya: Means I shall be drawn up by the Eternal One and as a type of the flesh: Self-preoccupied. One of the ten sons of Haman.
- Adridatha: Means the lion of the decree or great birth or of noble birth and as a type of the flesh: Self-assertive. The sixth son of Haman.
- Parmashta: Means superior or strong-fisted and as a type of the flesh: Self-preeminent, competitive. One of the ten sons of Haman.
- Arisay: Means the lion of my banners or lion-like and as a type of the flesh: Self-confidant. The eighth son of Haman, so called from his boldness and courage.
- Ariday: Means the lion is enough, strong and as a type of the flesh: proud, Self-superior. The ninth son of Haman.
- Vayzatha: Means strong as the wind or white or sincere or pure and as a type of the flesh: Self-righteous. One of Haman’s ten sons.